Aquilegia vulgaris

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3–0.8
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  • Growth form: polycarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: C – competitor
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): C/CSR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 48.7 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 28.3 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 22.9 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – ternate, compound – bipinnate
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: summer green
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-July
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  • Flowering phase: 5 Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum (end of mid-spring)
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  • Flower colour: white, pink, blue, blue-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: homochlamydeous
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – cluster of follicles
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: pleiocorm
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  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: pleiocorm, primary storage root
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Position of root buds: primary root
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: regenerative
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 13
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 15
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 33
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 9

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 14
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 663.35
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 331.68
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  • Genomic GC content: 40.6 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7; rarely at less than 20% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.75
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.71
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.27
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.19
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.37
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.59

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 1 Vegetation of cliffs, screes and walls

  • 1A Calcareous cliffs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 1C Walls: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12F Limestone beech forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12V Spruce plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.2 – taxon occurring mainly along forest edges and in forest openings, including forest roads and paths, windthrow sites, burnt sites and forest clearings
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Diagnostic taxon of associations: THF02 Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.6
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.3
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.8
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 2
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 5
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 17.5

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Continentality degree: 5
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 3
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt (subalpine belt)
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 411, 813
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.2 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 4 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2.3 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 20
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): NT – near threatened
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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