Campanula patula

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.25–0.7
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  • Growth form: monocarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: hemicryptophyte
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  • Life strategy: CSR – competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate, rosulate
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: both present and absent
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May–September
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  • Flowering phase: 6 Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora (start of early summer)
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  • Flower colour: violet, blue-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: campanulate
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: corymbothyrsus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: allogamy self-incompatibility, facultative allogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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  • Pollinator spectrum: bumblebees, hoverflies, other Diptera, beetles (honeybee, solitary bees, other Hymenoptera, flies s. l., meat flies s. l., butterflies, nitidulids, other pollinators)
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Root metamorphosis: primary storage root
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  • Storage organ: primary storage root
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 7
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 12
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 7
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 12
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 20 (40, 60)
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2 (4, 6)
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 2066.81
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 1033.4
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  • Genomic GC content: 39.4 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 5 – indicator of fresh soils, focus on soils of average moisture, missing on wet and on soils that frequently dry out
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  • Reaction indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 5 – occurring at moderately nutrient-rich sites, and less frequently at poor and rich sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.45
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.14
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.31
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.33
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.57
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.72

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4K Petasites fringes of montane brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5 Vegetation of springs and mires

  • 5D Calcareous fens: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 5E Acidic moss-rich fens and peatland meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6B Montane mesic meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 6D Alluvial meadows of lowland rivers: 2 – optimum
  • 6E Wet Cirsium meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6F Intermittently wet Molinia meadows: 2 – optimum
  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7 Acidophilous grasslands

  • 7A Subalpine and montane acidophilous grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 7B Submontane Nardus grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8E Acidophilous dry grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 9 Sand grasslands and rock-outcrop vegetation

  • 9C Festuca grasslands on acidic sands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11A Dry lowland to subalpine heathlands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11H Subalpine deciduous scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12D Ravine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12I Sub-continental thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12K Acidophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12L Boreo-continental pine forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12T Robinia pseudacacia plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12W Pine and larch plantations: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13E Perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation of mesic sites: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13F Herbaceous vegetation of forests clearings and Rubus scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.7
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.8
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 4.4
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 7
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 5
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 7

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: boreal, northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 5
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 651, 2180
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 3.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 2 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 13 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 35
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 9
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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