Lathraea squamaria

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.05–0.2
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: geophyte
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves reduced to scales
    ?
  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: April–May
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  • Flower colour: pink-violet
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: bilabiate
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: racemus
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: wind-pollination, insect-pollination
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Allium (mainly autochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: myrmecochorous
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: rhizome
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  • Storage organ: rhizome
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: hypogeogenous rhizome
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Persistence of the clonal growth organ [year]: 4
    ?
  • Number of clonal offspring: 2.7
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  • Lateral spreading distance by clonal growth [m]: 0.09
    ?
  • Clonal index: 4
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 15
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 7
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 15
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 7

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: root holoparasite
    ?
  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 36
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  • Ploidy level (x): 4
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 1121.56
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 280.39
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.8 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
    ?

Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 3 – shade plant, usually occurring where the incident radiation is less than 5% of that in an open area, but also at sunnier sites
    ?
  • Temperature indicator value: 5 – moderate heat indicator, occurring from lowland to montane belt, mainly in submontane-temperate areas
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  • Moisture indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
    ?
  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
    ?
  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -1.95
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.71
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.25
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.08
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.08
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.19

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

    ?
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11R Scrub and pioneer woodland of forests clearings: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12B Alluvial forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12C Oak-hornbeam forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12D Ravine forests: 2 – optimum
  • 12E Herb-rich beech forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12U Plantations of broad-leaved non-native trees: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 1.1 – taxon occurring mainly in the closed forest
  • Ecological specialization indices

    ?
  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 5.7
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 5.1
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.9
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
    ?
  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
    ?
  • Continentality degree: 4
    ?
  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 4
    ?
  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt, montane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 380, 713
    ?
  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0.1 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 1.6 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

    ?
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 7
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 2
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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