Oenanthe aquatica

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.3–1.5
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  • Growth form: monocarpic perennial non-clonal herb
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  • Life form: therophyte (hemicryptophyte)
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  • Life strategy: CS – competitor/stress-tolerator
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method based on leaf traits): CR
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, C-score): 57.2 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, S-score): 0 %
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  • Life strategy (Pierce method, R-score): 42.8 %
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves present, not modified
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  • Leaf arrangement (phyllotaxis): alternate
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  • Leaf shape: compound – bipinnate, compound – tripinnate
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Petiole: present
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  • Leaf life span: evergreen
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  • Leaf anatomy: hydromorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: June-August
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  • Flowering phase: 8 Clematis vitalba-Galium sylvaticum (mid-summer)
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  • Flower colour: white
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  • Flower symmetry: actinomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx reduced, corolla present
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  • Perianth fusion: free
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  • Calyx fusion: aposepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: umbella composita
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  • Dicliny: andromonoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: mixed mating
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – cremocarp
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: by seed/spores and vegetatively
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): fruit, infrutescence or its part
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  • Dispersal strategy: Sparganium (mainly autochory and hydrochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: stolon, rhizome
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  • Storage organ: stolon, rhizome
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): dicyclic or polycyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Primary root: present
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  • Number of clonal offspring: 0
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 8
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 13
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 8
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 13
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 3

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: autotrophic
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 22
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 1667.98
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 833.99
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  • Genomic GC content: 38.5 %
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Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
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Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 7 – half-light plant, mostly occurring at full light, but also in the shade up to about 30% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
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  • Temperature indicator value: 6 – transition between values 5 and 7
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  • Moisture indicator value: 10 – aquatic plant that survives long periods without soil flooding
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  • Reaction indicator value: 7 – indicator of slightly acidic to slightly basic conditions, never occurring in very acidic conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 7 – occurring at nutrient-rich sites more often than at average sites and only exceptionally at poor sites
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  • Salinity indicator value: 1 – salt tolerant, mostly on low-salt to salt-free soils, but occasionally on slightly salty soils
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  • Indicator values for disturbance

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  • Whole-community disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.63
  • Herb layer disturbance frequency indicator value: -0.57
  • Whole-community disturbance severity indicator value: 0.3
  • Herb layer disturbance severity indicator value: 0.33
  • Whole-community structure based disturbance indicator value: 0.6
  • Herb layer structure-based disturbance indicator value: 0.61

Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 3 Aquatic vegetation

  • 3A Macrophytic vegetation of eutrophic and mesotrophic still waters: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 3C Macrophytic vegetation of oligotrophic lakes and pools: 2 – optimum
  • 4 Wetland and riverine herbaceous vegetation

  • 4A Reed-beds of eutrophic still waters: 2 – optimum
  • 4B Halophilous reed and sedge beds: 2 – optimum
  • 4C Eutrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 2 – optimum
  • 4D Riverine reed vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4E Reed vegetation of brooks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4F Mesotrophic vegetation of muddy substrata: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4G Tall-sedge beds: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 4H Vegetation of low annual hygrophilous herbs: 2 – optimum
  • 4I Vegetation of nitrophilous annual hygrophilous herbs: 2 – optimum
  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6G Vegetation of wet disturbed soils: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 10 Saline vegetation

  • 10I Inland saline meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11I Willow carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11J Willow galleries of loamy and sandy river banks: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12A Alder carrs: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 2.2 – taxon occurring partly in the forest, but mainly in open vegetation
  • Diagnostic taxon

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  • Constant taxon

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  • Dominant taxon

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  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.3
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.4
  • Ecological specialization index for forest vegetation: 5.1
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 3
  • Index of colonization potential (ICP): 2
  • Optimum successional age [years]: 30

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 8
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt, submontane belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 428, 989
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  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 2.6 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 27.7 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 17 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 8.3 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 12.3 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 88 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

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  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 16
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 6
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 2

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): taxon is not on the Red List
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC(NA) – least concern (taxon is not on the Red List)
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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