Orobanche alba

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Habitus and growth type

  • Height [m]: 0.08––0.65
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  • Growth form: clonal herb
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  • Life form: geophyte
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Leaf

  • Leaf presence and metamorphosis: leaves reduced to scales
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  • Leaf shape: simple – entire
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  • Stipules: absent
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  • Leaf anatomy: mesomorphic
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Flower

  • Flowering period [month]: May-July
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  • Flower colour: yellow-white, pink
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  • Flower symmetry: zygomorphic
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  • Perianth type: calyx and corolla
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  • Perianth fusion: fused
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  • Shape of the sympetalous corolla or syntepalous perianth: bilabiate
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  • Calyx fusion: synsepalous
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  • Inflorescence type: spica
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  • Dicliny: synoecious
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  • Generative reproduction type: facultative autogamy
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  • Pollination syndrome: insect-pollination, selfing
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Fruit, seed and dispersal

  • Fruit type: dry fruit – capsule
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  • Fruit colour: brown
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  • Reproduction type: only by seed/spores
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  • Dispersal unit (diaspore): seed
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  • Dispersal strategy: Lycopodium (mainly anemochory)
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  • Myrmecochory: non-myrmecochorous (b)
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Belowground organs and clonality

  • Shoot metamorphosis: shoot tuber
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  • Storage organ: shoot tuber
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  • Type of clonal growth organ: root with adventitious buds
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  • Freely dispersible organs of clonal growth: absent
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  • Shoot life span (cyclicity): monocyclic shoots prevailing
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  • Branching type of stem-derived organs of clonal growth: sympodial
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  • Primary root: absent
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  • Position of root buds: hypocotyl
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  • Role of root buds in life-history of a plant: necessary
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  • Bud bank

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  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds excluded): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds excluded): 0
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds excluded): 10
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds exluded) [cm]: 3
  • Number of buds per shoot at the soil surface (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth of 0–10 cm (root buds included): 5
  • Number of buds per shoot at a depth greater than 10 cm (root buds included): 10
  • Size of the belowground bud bank (root buds included): 20
  • Depth of the belowground bud bank (root buds included) [cm]: 9

Trophic mode

  • Parasitism and mycoheterotrophy: root holoparasite
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  • Carnivory: non-carnivorous
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  • Symbiotic nitrogen fixation: no nitrogen-fixing symbionts
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Karyology

  • Chromosome number (2n): 38
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  • Ploidy level (x): 2
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  • 2C genome size [Mbp]: 5884.01
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  • 1Cx monoploid genome size [Mbp]: 2942
    ?

Taxon origin

  • Origin in the Czech Republic: native
    ?

Ecological indicator values

  • Ellenberg-type indicator values

  • Light indicator value: 8 – light plant, only exceptionally occurring at less than 40% of diffuse radiation incident in an open area
    ?
  • Temperature indicator value: 7 – heat indicator, occurring in relatively warm lowlands
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  • Moisture indicator value: 3 – missing on damp soil
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  • Reaction indicator value: 8 – transition between values 7 and 9, occurring mostly in calcium-rich conditions
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  • Nutrient indicator value: 3x – occurring at nutrient-poor sites more frequently than at average sites and exceptionally at rich sites (generalist)
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  • Salinity indicator value: 0 – not salt tolerant, glycophyte
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Habitat and sociology

  • Occurrence in habitats

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  • 6 Meadows and mesic pastures

  • 6A Mesic Arrhenatherum meadows: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 6C Pastures and park grasslands: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8 Dry grasslands

  • 8A Hercynian dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8B Submediterranean dry grasslands on rock outcrops: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 8C Narrow-leaved sub-continental steppes: 2 – optimum
  • 8D Broad-leaved dry grasslands: 2 – optimum
  • 8F Thermophilous forest fringe vegetation: 2 – optimum
  • 11 Heathlands and scrub

  • 11L Tall mesic and xeric shrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 11N Low xeric scrub: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12 Forests

  • 12H Peri-Alpidic basiphilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 12J Acidophilous thermophilous oak forests: 1 – rare occurrence
  • 13 Anthropogenic vegetation

  • 13D Perennial thermophilous ruderal vegetation: 1 – rare occurrence
  • Affinity to the forest environment

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  • Affinity to the forest environment in Thermophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Affinity to the forest environment in Mesophyticum and Oreophyticum: 0 – taxon that does not spontaneously occur in Czech forests
  • Ecological specialization indices

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  • Ecological specialization index for all vegetation types: 4.7
  • Ecological specialization index for non-forest vegetation: 4.7
  • Colonization ability

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  • Index of colonization success (ICS): 1

Distribution and frequency

  • Floristic zone: northern temperate, southern temperate, submeridional, meridional
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  • Floristic region: Europe, Western Asia
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  • Continentality degree: 6
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  • Distribution range extension along the continentality gradient: 6
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  • Elevational belt in the Czech Republic: lowlands, colline belt
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  • Occurrence frequency in the basic grid mapping cells and quadrants of the basic grid mapping cells: 120, 210
    ?
  • Commonness in vegetation plots from the Czech Republic

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  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 5%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 25%: 0 %
  • Occurrence frequency in vegetation plots with a cover above 50%: 0 %
  • Mean percentage cover in vegetation plots: 1.7 %
  • Maximum percentage cover in vegetation plots: 3 %
  • Number of habitats with taxon occurrence in the Czech Republic

    ?
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon occurs: 12
  • Number of narrow habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 3
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon occurs: 5
  • Number of broad habitats in which the taxon has its optimum: 1

Threats and protection

  • Red List 2017 (national categories): C3 – vulnerable taxon
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  • Red List 2017 (IUCN categories): LC – least concern
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  • Legal protection: not protected by law
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